& Exo Gas Generators
|Endo And Exo Gas Generators In view of
fundamental importance of carbon in determining the mechanical
properties of steel, special attention has been devoted to those
controlled atmosphere processes requiring control of carbon exchange
between the furnace atmosphere and work being treated.
characterize the carbon exchange, the term carbon potential has been
introduced (this denotes the carbon content which a pure iron
specimen takes up in equilibrium with thw furnace atmosphere).
The endothermic gas yields a potential between 0.7 to 0.9 which
corresponds to the surface carbon content aimed at in the majority
of processes. Endothermic atmospheres are used principally in the
heat treatment of carbon steels and may be slightly carburizing to
low carbon steels. These atmospheres have sufficient reducing
constituent to prevent effectively any oxidation of the material
being processed. They are substantially neutral to carbon steels.
Endothermic gas is produced by the reaction of an air-gas mixture
ranging from 25 to 40 % of perfect combustion. Since reaction in
this range is endothermic, it is necessary to supply external heat.
process is based on single catalytic cracking of LPG or natural gas
with accompanying admission of air at such a rate that the product
gas after cracking contains only CO, H2, N2 and traces of CO2 and
moisture. CO : 28 to 30 % H2 : 20 to 25 % CO2 : 0.1 to 0.5 % N2 :
Balance Our endothermic gas generator consist of a mixer unit,
cracking retort, gas cooler and control panel. All equipments are
accommodated in a single compact unit. The reaction takes place in
presence of high activity catalyst at a working temperature around
1050 deg C. Heating of the retort is affected electrically by
heating elements around the retort.Feed
LPG or Natural Gas. Capacities :
NM3/hr to 100 NM3/hr packaged unit.
Exo Gas Generator exo-gas (lean ratio)
these atmospheres ranging from 90 % to 98 5 of perfect combustion
have the following composition :
» Co2 : 11 to 13 %
Co : 0. 5 to 1. 5 %
» H2 : 0. 5 to 2 %
» N2 :
balance these are normally used for bright annealing of copper,
scale-free annealing of brass and similar operation on non-ferrous
The protective gas rich in Co and H2 is
known as rich exo gas and is generated within 55 % to 90 % of
perfect combustion , the gas composition will be:
Co2 : 5 to 6
Co : 10 to 12 %
H2 : 11 to 13 %
N2 : balance the
composition of atmosphere gas depends on composition of fuel also.
The presence of reducing constituents Co & H2 will
effectively prevent the oxidation of many metals. These atmospheres
are , therefore, reducing. However, since appreciable
amount of Co2 is present, the atmosphere becomes decarburizing in
character. Exothermic atmosphere with Co2 and water removed both co2
and water vapors are decarburizing agents. When held to the minimum,
they do not present too serious an interface to the expected use. In
certain application, only water need to be removed from the gas.
of Exo-Gas Generator
Raw Exo-Gas Type : Where the
products of combustion are directly used as. Protective gas.
Dry Exo-Gas Type : Certain applications require only partial
removal of moisture to prevent oxidation and decarburization. In
these, the gas are passed through a refrigeration unit to reduce the
dew point to around plus 5 deg c.
Perfectly Dry Exo-Gas Type
: Eherever materials call for moisture free gas generator is
followed by a refrigeration unit and then a packaged essicant drier
eg. Silica gel, alumina. Here the dew point of the product gas is
reduced to around minus 40 deg c.
Natural Gas, LPG, Kerosene, Diesel.
10 nm3/hr to 1000 nm3/hr in various